Share:Wireless protocols showdown: Why not Wi-Fi?

Original link: https://blog.silvair.com/2015/10/01/wireless-protocols-showdown-3/

 

As promised, with this episode we’ll start reviewing each of the leading connectivity solutions one by one, sharing the lessons we’ve learned while exploring their capabilities and limitations. And what else could we start with but Wi-Fi, arguably the most globally recognized wireless networking technology. According to the Wi-Fi Alliance, the standard carries roughly a half of all Internet traffic for billions of users worldwide. It’s most commonly used to provide computers, smartphones and tablets with a quick a reliable Internet access, but it can theoretically connect any two devices to enable the exchange of data between them. Widely used in private homes, offices and public spaces around the entire globe, Wi-Fi might seem to be perfectly positioned to take the early IoT market by storm. And while the dust is far from settling in the IoT communication standards war, this powerful technology is clearly nowhere near the top of the list of today’s hottest connectivity solutions for the Internet of Things. So what went wrong? Let us break it down for you.

The Wi-Fi technology is based on the family of wireless networking standards IEEE 802.11x. They define only the first two layers of the OSI reference model – the physical layer and the data link layer (a quick introduction to the 7 layers of the OSI model can be found in our previous blogpost). As far as the network and transport layers are concerned, Wi-Fi typically relies on other standard protocols, such as UDP or TCP (for transport) and IPv4 or IPv6 (for networking). Let’s see what this arrangement looks like on a simplified version of the OSI model:

WiFi on OSI

Note the empty space at the application layer, as we’ll get back to it later.

Wi-Fi is a powerful and reliable wireless connectivity solution that the technology industry has successfully relied on over many years.  802.11 has emerged as a global communication standard because it offered numerous excellent features, and was continually developed and improved by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). As a result of these efforts, multiple “flavors” of 802.11 were developed over time, with 802.11n being the most commonly used in today’s homes and offices. A Wi-Fi network has a star topology, which means that all its nodes connect directly to the central hub, e.g. a wireless router. With this arrangement, devices can be added and removed from the network without disrupting its entire structure and flow of data. Designed for the rapid exchange of high data volumes over reasonable distances, Wi-Fi does that job just perfectly. Basic parameters, such as range or data transfer rate, vary between different 802.11 standards, but a typical wireless router is usually enough to provide a decent network coverage for a standard apartment. In larger buildings, more access points or signal extenders can be deployed to increase coverage. As for the throughput, some versions of the 802.11 standard have the limit of 11 or 54 Mb/s, but the commonly used 802.11n is capable of transmitting hundreds of megabit per second, and 802.11ac is even faster. These numbers certainly look impressive, as the throughput of other wireless connectivity solutions for the IoT is expressed in kb/s rather than Mb/s. On top of that, one of Wi-Fi’s major strengths is the ubiquity of 802.11 infrastructure across the globe. The fact that it is commonly integrated into new laptops, smartphones and tablets is also extremely relevant from the perspective of IoT applications.

The features mentioned above is what made Wi-Fi the default technology for enabling wireless Internet access in our lives. It can easily transport high-definition video streams and its throughput limits are usually way higher than the needs of an average user. But the IoT is a completely different thing that the good ol’ Internet. Wi-Fi’s impressive data transfer rate is overkill for typical smart home/office applications, where instead of data-heavy content, devices broadcast simple commands (e.g. on/off), state-change signals or only tiny bits of information (e.g. sensor data). And while such overcapacity is not a big problem by itself, there is a cost for this enormous throughput. Being a high-bandwidth communication standard, Wi-Fi is also extremely power-intensive. This is a big problem in the resource-challenged IoT world, where multiple devices are supposed to operate without any wires. In the case of several other connectivity solutions, coin batteries can keep simple wireless devices running for years. But building a battery-powered Wi-Fi device that could last even one year with decent responsiveness is virtually impossible. The power-hungriness is obviously not a big deal if a particular device is connected to a power lead or wall outlet, but for all those applications where battery-powered operation is a must (e.g. sensors in remote places), Wi-Fi is just not capable of delivering a reasonable performance.

Further limitations arise from the topology of a Wi-Fi network. Reliance upon a central gateway to handle all the traffic has one major drawback – once a hub fails, individual nodes of the network cannot communicate with each other, essentially making the entire network inoperable. Of course you don’t expect your hub to go down all that often, but each such incident could end up being extremely irritating if all your light bulbs, door locks and garage doors belong to a single smart network.

As already mentioned, Wi-Fi can be found in every new smartphone or laptop on the market. Out of all the communication protocols aspiring to connect the IoT, only Wi-Fi and Bluetooth have this advantage of being natively integrated into our phones, making them ultimate controllers for our smart environments. However, in the case of Wi-Fi this potential cannot be fully realized. Even though a smartphone and a Wi-Fi device use the same language to communicate, this communication is not direct as it always goes through the network’s central access point. This is why Wi-Fi devices cannot use proximity sensing features that have become a trademark of the Bluetooth technology.

Given that virtually every potential customer has a Wi-Fi enabled phone, one could assume that setting up a Wi-Fi network of smart devices would be a piece of cake. It is a bit complicated, though. Before a smart device can be added to a Wi-Fi network, it has to know the password for this network. This is easy when you want to connect a laptop or a smartphone, but gets tricky when your device has no keyboard and no screen. It might seem that a smartphone could do the job, after all it also speaks Wi-Fi so why not use it to tell the device what the password is? This certainly can be done – but first the device has to be networked with the phone, which brings us back to where we started from. Manufacturers use various methods to make this setup process as easy and intuitive as possible, yet each of them introduces additional complexity and has certain drawbacks. The setup process is one of the biggest problems of the Wi-Fi technology in smart home environment where a flawless user experience is top priority. To address this challenge, some of the vendors have gone so far as to add microUSB ports to their smart devices solely for configuration purposes. While this effectively solves the setup issues, we are not convinced that light switches with USB ports is where we want to get with the IoT.

In the first episode of our series, we kept emphasizing that interoperability tops the list of challenges which need to be addressed for the IoT to realize its full potential. So what Wi-Fi offers in this regard? Not that much, unfortunately. As we already mentioned, Wi-Fi does not define the application layer, which means that machine-to-machine communication is basically impossible unless companies manufacturing two particular devices work in close cooperation to precisely define how they can communicate. Wi-Fi is often mistakenly considered interoperable, since we use it all the time to successfully enter into all kinds of interactions with each other. But all these interactions can happen only because there are humans on both ends of the communication process. Setting up a Skype conversation is what can be described as adding an ad-hoc application layer to the Wi-Fi based communication. Humans can do it by choosing the right tools and coordinating the entire process by themselves. “Things” can’t handle that, and for this reason Wi-Fi is a standard which by itself does not ensure any interoperability in the world of connected devices.

Finally, there is the price factor that always needs to be taken into consideration by manufacturers. Wi-Fi modules are relatively pricey, and although differences have decreased recently, they still remain between 50% to 100% more expensive than some of the competing radio modules used in connected devices. This is not something that can be easily ignored when drawing up mass production plans.

Now it must be emphasized that some of the disadvantages mentioned above apply to the vast majority of the leading communication technologies, just to mention the hub-based topology or the complicated setup process. But what really disqualifies Wi-Fi as the ultimate connectivity solution for the IoT is its power-hungriness. Despite numerous impressive features, it just cannot efficiently support wireless devices, such as sensors or controllers, which are an important part of what the IoT is expected to become.

There are certain scenarios where Wi-Fi can still get the job done really well. If you are a manufacturer of a device which needs a reliable connection with the cloud rather than with a dense network of other smart devices, and your product needs to be connected to a power lead or wall outlet anyway, and you manage to find a way to overcome setup challenges to make this process intuitive and user-friendly, and you don’t care all that much about the price of a radio module, then Wi-Fi becomes a totally reasonable solution for you. Otherwise, you should think twice. Wi-Fi is an excellent technology for performing data-heavy activities, such as streaming video content, and it is likely to cover this small fraction of the IoT space where such processes are required. But when it comes to smartening our homes and offices, there are simply more suitable solutions out there, the ones that were designed specifically to address the needs of the IoT. Next time we’ll take a look at one of them, so stay tuned.

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转:郭老学徒:专制为什么离不开谎言

original is here

500年前就有人精辟地指出:专制统治必须靠暴力和谎言这两个支柱来支撑,这个人就是被誉为政治学之父的马基亚维里。

马基亚维里是意大利佛罗伦萨人,在佛罗伦萨城市共和国担任过国务秘书和外交官,后来佛罗伦萨的共和制被推翻了,美第奇家族执掌了权力,马基亚维里丢 了官,还一度被关进了监狱。他为了得到新统治者的青睐,东山再起,写了一本为统治者美第奇家族出谋划策的书,这就是著名的《君主论》。

在《君主论》中,马基亚维里为君主支招,实话实说,大胆突破了道德的约束。

他直言不讳地告诉君主:对于君主,作恶比行善有利。统治者如果按照道德主义鼓吹的善良品质行事,就有失去权力的危险。

他给君主支招:伟大的君主既要有狮子的凶猛,又要有狐狸的狡猾。要使每一个人害怕和尊重自己。一个君主必须是一个大伪装者和伪君子,懂得如何使用欺骗把人们弄糊涂,使人们相信自己的伪装。蒙蔽视听,把人的头脑搞糊涂的本事,是所有成功的君主的必备武器。

为了给君主减轻道德上的压力,马基亚维里指出:目的总是证明手段正确。为了目的,可以不择手段。统治者为了保持地位,必须非善良地去获取权力。这是“必然性的命令”。

许多人把马基亚维里看作是邪恶的象征。莎士比亚就把他称为“凶残的马基亚维里。”

但是也有人认为马基亚维里是清醒和真实的,他站在君主的立场上所说的实话恰恰反映了或者说揭露了专制制度邪恶的本质,在专制制度下,统治者必然要作 恶,马基亚维里要君主服从这“必然性的命令”,这个必然性对于人们认清专制本质有着积极的意义。恩格斯把马基亚维里称作文艺复兴的巨人,大概也是从这个角 度考虑的。

关于专制统治为什么必须靠谎言支撑,仅仅靠暴力支撑为什么不行,对此马基亚维里没有谈透,我们来分析分析看。

任何统治者都不可能在失去民意基础的情况下维持统治地位,专制统治也必须有民意基础,即使没有认可的民意,至少也要有认命的民意。哲学家休谟就曾经说过,统治是建立在舆论上的。录音分段

为什么仅仅靠暴力无法维持统治?

专制统治归根结底是少数人的统治,统治权最终归结到执掌最高权力的一个人、一个家族或极少数寡头手里。

最高权力的执掌者也是凡人,没有孙悟空的本领,没有刀枪不入的神功,他的个人力量是极其有限的。他可以下令杀人,但也可能被杀。如果没有民意支持, 仅仅靠暴力手段进行统治,那掌握暴力的人就是他的最大的危险所在。古罗马帝国的皇帝害怕军队政变,把罗马军团都布置在帝国的边疆区,首都罗马只留忠诚的近 卫军保护皇帝,但后来恰恰是近卫军成了废立皇帝的决定性力量,一些皇帝就是被近卫军杀死的。中国的帝王死于非命的也大都是身边的权臣、宦官或兄弟所为,被 造反民众所杀的是极少数。

所有执行暴力任务的人,如军队、警卫、近卫军等都是与民有联系的,大都来自于民,大都会受到民的影响,滥用暴力镇压不满的民众,会激起民众更强烈的不满和愤怒,到了某个转折点,拿枪的人就可能不再听命,而是掉转枪口。越是依赖于暴力的统治者,越有可能葬身于暴力。

权力从来都不缺争夺者,专制权力更是如此,多少人为了夺权你死我活地拼杀,儿子可能杀父亲,母亲可能杀儿子,亲兄弟也互相残杀,更不用说没有骨肉关 系的政敌了。在统治者失去民意的情况下,他的政敌一定会利用这一点替天行道为民除害。所以,统治者一旦失去民意,就离覆灭不远了,起义、造反、政变、暗 杀、逼宫、废黜等大戏在等着他。中外历史上这种例子太多了,举不胜举。

如此,我们知道了民意为什么对于统治者是必不可少的:在民意面前,再强大的统治者也是虚弱的。

无论什么样的专制统治都是少数人获得利益和垄断权力的统治,不可能代表人民的利益,也不可能真正地获得民意,所以,必须靠谎言来骗取民意。

在古代社会,统治者骗取民意最主要的谎言是“君权神授”,实际上是以天意来逼迫民意就范。

在欧洲,在基督教没有获得统治地位之前,天意的权威没有确立起来,那时候罗马帝国的皇帝被杀被废的比例非常高。当基督教统治欧洲后,皇帝与国王由教 皇承认并加冕,由于大多数民众是教徒,如此使得君权神授被认可,天意代表了民意。中世纪君主的人身安全要比罗马帝国的皇帝强了许多。即使如此,君主们也不 敢掉以轻心,必须依靠谎言巩固统治。15世纪德国人古登堡的印刷术给欧洲带来了出版便利,所有国家的君主无一例外地限制言论自由和出版自由,他们尽管有天 意支撑,还是害怕谎言被揭穿,执政地位被动摇。

中国皇帝的“天命”主要是靠“奉天承运”的故事和礼教来欺骗臣民。同时还实行愚民教育,用各种方式灌输和培养奴性,明清时期,奴性文化达到高潮。

进入了现代社会,君权神授这种一劳永逸的谎言不灵了,天意无法代表民意了,民意成了权力合法性的唯一来源。

对于实行民主制度的国家来说,民意是由选票定量地统计出来的。所以当选的政治家必然具备民意基础。又由于言论自由新闻自由出版自由得到保障,当政者撒谎太难,代价也太大,等于自杀,所以,民主制度不需要谎言维系。录音分段

实行专制制度的国家,由于没有了天意支撑,又没有人民授权,为了维系统治,就必须强化谎言。所以,这些国家无一例外地控制媒体,限制言论自由和出版自由,实行新闻垄断,封闭或过滤外部世界的信息,并控制文化教育各个领域的信息。

不过,现代社会撒谎越来越难了,除非像朝鲜那样,封闭了与外界的所有联系。即使这样,还是有许多人冒死逃了出来,他们在与外界完全隔绝的情况下,怎么会想到要冒着生命的危险逃往没有主体阳光照耀的黑暗世界呢?看来,没有不透风的墙。

前苏联时期,所有媒体都被严格控制,那时候也没有手机和互联网,但人民的不满还是通过厨房聊天和政治笑话广为传播。

文革时期,广播报纸每天都宣传文化大革命就是好就是好就是好,每天都造谣撒谎,但人民的不满还是通过小道消息和内部消息广为传播。

如此说来,在现代社会,即使没有手机和互联网,撒谎也很难了,有了它们,撒谎就更难了。所以,谎言的功效会越来越衰减,相信的人会越来越少。当谎言不再被人们相信的时候,专制的解体就会开始,这也是必然的。

不过,这个必然性与马基亚维里的必然性是截然相反的方向。

“以国有之名,行一家私有之实,以人民之名,行盘剥人民之实,以稳固安定之名,行维持暴政统治之实”,周厉王虽然死了,但他的谎言幸存了下来。

“除了谎言之外,暴力没有任何东西可作护身符,而谎言也只有靠暴力才能生存”,改变从唾弃谎言开始。

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EPSON R270更换打印头 故障处理

最近由于R270一个颜色堵头严重,无法清理,并且由于清理过程中搞坏了打印头的墨针,只能报废了.淘宝买了一个打印头,更换过程发生两次错误,这两个错误现象在网上都无法找到相应的答案,所以解决以后决定还是放到这里.

墨车拆解的过程网上可以找到相应的教程以及视频,这里就不赘述.

安装碰到第一个问题是开机后几乎没有开始自检,立即出现换墨和进纸指示灯同时闪烁.EPSON的软件提示是可能有异物导致墨车无法正常运动,网上查询也基本上是这个结论.即使把打印头拆除,现象依旧.仔细排查后我认我是没有这个问题的,墨车活动基本正常.仔细观察后,发现在墨车皮带(虽然不是皮质的)上方,有一条几乎透明的,看起来像朔料带的东西,不知道是什么,似乎没有安装到位.用手电观察墨车背后(无法拆卸,背后指的是连接导轨的那一面),有一个T型槽,似乎正好能卡住这条透明的带子.于是尝试将透明条带设法卡入T型槽,居然自检就正常了.依然不知道这个T型槽有什么功能,估计是有传感器用于检测墨车位置.限于空间,难以拍照留念.

碰到的第二个问题,是测试页无法正常打印,打印的内容完全混乱,看起来像所有的喷头颜色同时不受控的喷墨,见下图:

IMG_20160318_230720

连续拆解多次,依然如故.同样的状况,在网上无法搜索出结果,甚至似乎没有人碰到过.还有一个现象是当墨车到达导轨中央的时候,有明显的电流滋滋声,这个正常情况下肯定是没有的.

联系卖家,建议是拆下打印头,用电吹风干燥打印头的两个数据接口,排除电路短路问题.无奈中只好第四次拆下打印头,这个时候我已经是个超级熟练工了,拆装打印头早都不需要拆开打印机的机壳了.拿出打印头的瞬间才发现,打印头的两个数据线接口我只插了比较宽的那个,还有个窄的,贴合在墨车底部,我一直以为是直接就连接在墨车上的,没有接过.接上两个数据线后,测试页立即正常了,答应了几张照片,效果基本满意.打印头测试还是有几根断线,不过看起来影响不大,希望到后面能慢慢改善吧,清洗打印头现在也不是什么摸不着头脑的操作了.

EPSON打印机的废墨槽设计看起来有很大的问题,这些天拆解打印机的过程中,才发现打印机底壳装满了废墨,稍微倾斜打印机就流的到处都是,几乎用了一卷卫生纸才慢慢把里面的墨水吸干,又凉了几天.在搜索拆机视频的时候,无意中看到有个视频将打印机内部的废墨引流管直接导到机身外部(原来是将废墨导入一些吸废墨的类似无纺棉布的材料里,但是从拆机结果看废墨实际上喷的到处都是),也就仿照这个过程在机身右边打个孔,将导管直接引出,废墨就可以接到机身外的容器里面,预计不会再在底壳留下大量的墨汁.从现在的情况看,每次清洗打印头,都会大概都会浪费5ml左右的墨水,有时候开机也会做类似清洗的操作.

总体来看,喷墨打印机会是一个很过时的产品,墨水打印本身就是个问题,只不过现在没有更合适的廉价方案替代罢了.

 

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How to setup a personal proxy server inside the GFW

How the cross the fucking wall? VPN might be the best choose in the old time. But things are always changing. VPN provider banned by China gov one by one, or under attack, they are not that stable and available as before. They make themselves the targets, they are host spots on the internet like stars in the deep sky easy to trail and to make business  they have to let anyone to know the services they providing. Passive-security is never enough in the tough and dirty fight with China gov.

I have been use TOR for a while long time ago, it is never stable as expect and today it is useless at all against China Great Firewall.

I am using FreeGate for years, I have to say it is a loyalty company. Seem that it has strong enough technical background, always survived from GFW, both side upgraded from time to time, and FG is the winner in the end, for now . Another optional tool is Psiphon3, I been using this tools for the recent years, as a backup of FG. It is working well most time, not as stable but faster than FG, and Psiphon has a good free Android client, set the mobile phone free for Internet.

OK, my focus on this document is not the history, but practice of setup a personal proxy server step by step. Why we need a personal server? A personal server is private, low profile, catch less attention. It is not open to the Internet, just a secret gate for home. That will  keep you  head down, which make it much impossible to get notice by GFW. Surely you can share your server with trusted friends, but not always a good idea. And maybe the most importance is that  your  person proxy sever is available all over the China mainland, as I known, there is not way to break through the Wall in some parts of China, like Tibet, Xinjiang, I think they are unconditionally banned, not by GFW rule, and that is reasonable, there is no rule there, I mean normal rule. Also you could set up a personal cloud base on this infrastructure, with more security add-ins.

To set up a server, there are several parts of works:

1, choose the ladder: As I mentioned above, I choose FreeGate and Psiphon 3, one for major, one for back up. FG provide only HTTP proxy, local port is 8580 by default, Psiphon provide both HTTP and SOCK proxy, port could be setup by your self. You can’t setup the tool to run @ Windows startup.

2, A laptop running Windows 10. most Windows is fine, but sooner or latter it will upgrade to win 10 anyway, so why not switch to 10 by yourself. An importance software is proxy server, it will bind all local network interface and provide proxy function on those interface. A good proxy server is key choose. I choose FreeProxy. It is free though a little old, out of maintenance , not working very well on win10, but I really can’t found a better replacement. FreeProxy actually running in services mode, to configure FreeProxy, you need run the console as administrator, or you may not connect to the services. You need to add several proxy entries, enable them and done. For example, for FreeGate configuration:freeproxy congfigure.png

figure : example proxy entry setting

The last part need to modify the computer is to make it auto logon, that will make freegate  or Psiphon running automatically, may has some security problem here but as I said, it is a  private server, should not contain sensitive information or you have to using a really server level Os like Linux.

3.From now on, you can access to ladder anywhere in you local network, just setup any client software ‘s proxy server, pointing to the computer IP  @ port 9090.  But how to make the server accessible all over the mainland? Here are some sub steps:

  1. you need a router, which support NAT configuration. In China mainland, broadband provider give you  a free router, almost can’t be configured by user, they are managed  remotely by ISP. so you need a router, if it could support DDWRT, that would be much better. Anyway, the requirement is: supporting NAT. Setup NAT entry, mapping outer access to 9090 (as example  show) to you computer local IP port  9090, so that if you try to access 9090 port from outside network, the request will be redirect to computer running the services, port 9090, which is listened by FreeProxy entry “freegate” as the picture above shown. When I have to use ISP provided router, for some reason, it don’t support NAT setting, but at least it supports UPNP, I had wrote a small program which will setup Nat using UPNP, that is the best solution I could figure out before I bought Cisco EA2700. If you need, I could provide help, UPNP is not very stable, but it works in most time.
  2. Now you are on the run, but you external IP is a dynamic (each ISP PPP dialing will acquire a new one), will be changed for some reason like reboot the router, how could you know your current external IP when you are not at home? There  is not easy  way, the best solution is to setup DDNS service. That will bind a domain name to your IP, like a real DNS. You can google for dynamic IP provider, here I choose www.dtdns.com, it announces for free for good and most importantly, it is not banned by China. DTDNS has a web dash to setup domain name/IP mapping, also it provides a spec of how to update IP programmable.
  3. You should be able to cross the WALL from anywhere, if you correctly setup you client ‘s proxy setting. I had make a little program, running on server computer, it will be ran every 30 minutes(through Windows task scheduler), checking current external IP, if the IP has been changed, it would fire a request to http://www.dtdns.com, update the domain with new IP, so that if Ican’t visit my personal server, all I have to do is to sit tight and wait for no more than 40 minutes(some extra minutes needed for DNS cache flesh), and  it will back on line. Actually, DDWRT also has such services, but it is buggy for DTDNS, and to modify that will lead to a hard work to recompile the whole DDWRT, so I choose to make the one myself, just running on Windows, not the router.

4. Everything is set now, for the server side. The last part is about how the make the good use of  what we has built. There are two major clients, browser on PC and mobile device. For PC, I use Firefox, with Aut0Pr0xy extension, the extension subscribes GFW banned list automatically apply proxy setting to those site, quite a smart transparency tool. For Android user, I suggest install an app “ProxyDroid”, excellent proxy management tool, you could setup different proxy set, each on has its own rule. The rule includes, when will the proxy activated, on mobile network or WiFi environment or just all time; how to apply proxy setting, global mode or white-list mode: apps you chose will not apply to proxy, others, include Android system, would be proxied. that is very useful for me. For Apple user, kiss my ass.

Here is what I want to say about this topic today. I wrote this document not just for meno, also I think it as a contribution to the great works of “breaking the Wall down”. It is absolutely an degeneration of building such a technical barrier between China and the rest of the world, and the wall is higher everyday. People inside the wall, getting ignorant day by day, I call these people, the walking dead. Today in China major city, flesh air, green mountain or pure blue sky are so precious, people begin to forget what the real world looks like, feel like, after years of haze, they took what they experience as the real world, losing imagination and the hope for beautiful things, they don’t even has voice, they are the silent generation. Only when you open an outward window, smell flesh freedom air, see the beauty and ugly u self, you can’t wake up.

If anything unclear follow the instructions, please let me know, I have been using this ‘solution’ for years so I may missing some critical steps or leave some parts unclarify. Thanks.

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赤脚医生之 扁挑体

最近扁挑体化感染导致化脓,日子过得异常清苦,这两天终于有好转的趋势.一直觉得自己对身体,尤其是自己的身体颇有掌控,直觉基本比较正确,是否需要用药,何时出现状况,通常都是比较敏感的.但是总有些时候自己无法处理,需要通过医院解决,遂决定把一些问诊的经历记录下来,以备查之.

day1, 感觉右侧扁挑体有所不适,仅仅略微不适而已,以经验来说这不是什么问题通常睡一觉就完全没问题, 不予处理

day2, 情况在变坏,以为是感冒或者伤寒导致,决定吃点泰诺试试看.虽然觉得自己没感冒,但是一周前在云南度假,昼夜温差较大,白天温度适宜,晚上通常穿的也比较少,可能是风寒引起的.有点低烧,38+.

day3, 不适感大大加重,已经开始分散我的注意力,无法正常上班,抽烟.不能抽烟是个很大的问题,不是烟瘾的问题,而是说明身体无法接受快感,霉运当头.晚上开始已经难以愉快的进食,睡前服用2次阿莫西林,放弃感冒的想法

day4,熬过艰难的一夜.情况没有任何好转,这和常理以及经验严重不符.找了一些头孢克洛缓释胶囊,开始强力驱毒.12小时一片,早上吃了没什么明显作用,中午忍不住翘班回家睡觉,反正也没有注意力上班了.中午+1片,晚上依然无起色,看说明书药量可以加倍,遂+2片.用手电检查了状况,一塌糊涂,让我想起小时候严重的口腔溃疡,只不过位置在喉部,我认为自己得的溃疡,而不是扁挑体发炎,动摇了我继续上头孢的信心

day5, what a F night. 按经验来说,消炎药如果有效,应该能够立即缓解症状,显然这次又增加了不同的经验.经历了不能吃不能睡的两天,我发现自己还是很馋的.加上明显感觉到肾脏的负担,不敢再自己药自己了.为了治好馋虫,加之已经被颠覆的经验,只好乖乖的投医问药去了.诊断认为是化脓性扁挑体发炎,也就是重症扁挑体发炎.这次开回来头孢地尼分散片+搭配销售的中成药,去个中医院总得出点血,西药倒是医保基本包含,中药有自费部分,还好自费部分总共只占1/6,中药部分占了2/5或者是3/5记不清了.一天三次2片.医生说要3-5天才能有效,还叫我拼命喝水排毒.我的内心是崩溃的.头孢地尼分解片貌似欲水即溶,估计含服效果不错(抱怨一下,bing IME太没有生活经验了,什么组合词都打不出来,这大概就是MS和google的差距吧,虽然学习能力还行).中药就不提了,傻大黑粗,入胃即溶,释放出一股奇怪的气味.药名上来说是具有排毒作用,看不见摸不着,闻得到,我还是不评价了.

day6, another F night, 咽部的刺激以及无规律的大脑和左手小臂神经放射性刺痛让我这几天过足了隐,任何东西都都可以变得有情节,支离破碎但是就这么在我大脑里开始排练,我昏天黑地的被固定在观众席上味同嚼蜡,看着自己的无意识在爬行.早晨带着重生的心态从床上爬起,一不做二不休,强力止疼,上芬必得.虽然说明书没指出可以对付扁挑体的疼痛,但是神经放射性刺痛应该有效.这是个明智的选择,半个小时候神经性头痛开始慢慢消失,一个多小时以后,喉部的疼痛也基本上减轻到可以轻松应对的程度.剥离痛感仅剩触感,不用直接观察都可以准确的感到扁条体已经被侵蚀得像环形山了,口水流过都有明确的质感.今天阳光真美好,我透过雾霾认清你的本质.一大早7点多做了一大锅饭(难吃的要屎)和一大锅菜(难吃的要屎2),吃的好开心,蛤蛤.下午居然可以去打球,居然打的还算正常,除了感觉瞄来瞄去有点晃,我猜这是植物神经在长时间爬行之后改成直立行走,忽然有点不适应,需要重新校准.傍晚时分,芬必得12小时药力一过,各种症状劈头盖脸而来,爷已经不怕你了.开心的忍痛把上午的屎吃完,下一颗核弹要留到睡前两个小时,我已经看够了无意识流导演的烂片以及各种鬼才知道的哪里翻出来的线索,比大陆导演还差劲.今天检查创口,没有任何改善,可能还略有加重的嫌疑,好凶

day7, a silent night and morning, 芬必得果然是良心药.早起检查伤口,发现开始出现收缩的趋势,止疼药的药效明显已经消失,神经性头痛已经消失,喉部的疼痛变得可以忍受.开始乱吃东西,干家务,还修好了飞机,蛤蛤,爷回来了,可以飞了.

day8-x,无需芬必得催眠,过了一个还算可以的夜晚,有强烈的咳嗽但还可以忍受.检视病灶,明显收缩了,敌人应该开始溃败了,胜利已经不可逆转了,撒悠啦啦.

总结:

小时候溃疡比较多,经验上来说,溃疡是通过补充大量的维生素B2B6来治疗的(对我的情况来说)这次我也是这么认为的,吃了一些B族,不过医生认为是化脓就没有再吃了.头孢地尼和头孢克洛或者阿莫西林应该都有效,不过一天试验下来没有效果我也不敢坚持,另外大剂量的头孢对肾脏的压力地区不小,不知道自己的肾脏在哪里,吃两片很快它(们)就会自己告诉你.芬必得对神经性疼痛好像非常有效,几乎是立竿见影,药效几乎能作用12个小时,工程师风格.医生判断还是非常准确,不过中药药方我不知道有多少作用,还是觉得基本上是浪费医保以及患者的金钱,希望我的理解是正确的,如果是,浪费是可耻的.

 

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读懂俄罗斯革命(转载)

original link

文|王烁

BetterRead 有理有趣有用

《一个民族的悲剧:1891年至1924年的俄国革命》,A People’s Tragedy: The Russian Revolution 1891-1924,作者是英国史学家Orlando Figes,专治俄罗斯史,兼具文才和史才。这本书是他的成名作,获奖无数。1891年发生俄罗斯大饥荒,1924年列宁去世。

20世纪中国发生的事情,俄罗斯都已经发生过。要理解中国,读懂俄罗斯是捷径。本书厚达700页,我边读边记,再创作出近两万字长篇笔记,创下个人读书笔记长度和用力的纪录,此前曾分八篇连载,应要求合为一篇长文,请过瘾。

一、王朝衰世


末代沙皇夫妇

罗曼诺夫王朝没有内阁,也没有相权。末代沙皇尼古拉亲政勤勉,亲自处理大小公务,包括职业学校厨子的聘任事宜,连秘书都不要。他坚信自己与俄罗斯人民有神秘的血肉相连。

末代皇后亚力山德拉是英国维多利亚女王外孙女。维多利亚教其为君之道,在于致力获得臣民拥戴。亚力山德拉回答,您错了。沙皇就是人民。人民必然爱他。独子阿列克塞是血友病患者,纵王室照样求告无门,为神棍拉斯普金打开了冬宫大门。

父皇亚历山大三世壮年早逝,尼古拉接位时惊恐万状:“我不会治国,也没有兴趣治国,我都不知道怎么跟大臣说话!”路易十六接位时也说过类似的话。溥仪接位时太小,说不出这话来。

1850年代的克里米亚战争对俄罗斯相当于鸦片战争对中国;1905年的日俄战争对俄罗斯相当于甲午战争对中国。第一次战败后都搞现代化改革;第二次战败后都搞革命。非常巧合,英国人和日本人都分别给中俄带来了这两场战争。

1870年代,俄罗斯统治阶层出现立宪思潮。改革派大本营在财政部,部长Abaza说,沙皇不能只靠100万军队和官员治理国家。后来1890年代的改革派领袖维特也说,俄罗斯只有改革,走向现代化、法治、自由,才能避免革命。

保守派大本营在内务部,领袖Durnovo认为宪政时机不成熟,要等到经济发展水平够高才能启动政治改革。经济自由化加专制政治是他们开出的药方。

1881年,亚历山大二世遇刺身亡,亚历山大三世接位,相信改良只会催生暴徒,改革派全数下野。

20世纪初问一个乌克兰农民他是谁,他会回答是东正教徒;要问他是俄国人还是乌克兰人,他会说自己是农民,谁当国王都一样。民族主义的兴起,要等到教育普及、市场连接农村与城市以后,才会成为潮流。

由于俄罗斯帝国扩张太快,俄罗斯人占帝国人口比例只占44%,激发了大俄罗斯主义危机感,于是禁止在学校、公文和公共场所使用俄语以外的民族语言。波兰大学生研读波兰文学时,必须使用俄译本。1907年,基辅行政当局发布霍乱通知,不用乌克兰文用俄文,但乌克兰90%人口是农民,不识俄文。

犹太人在俄罗斯多民族结构的底层,不允许拥有土地。沙俄最后年代有数百起迫害犹太人事件,并非出自政府策划,而是民间自发。反犹主义也是权力阶层的时髦,沙皇尼古拉认为犹太人经商,亵渎了俄罗斯国民的纯洁性格。

俄罗斯第一个马克思主义政党是犹太人党。同为犹太人的托洛斯基认为阶级斗争比民族斗争更重要,最终犹太人马克思主义政党沿阶级斗争与民族斗争的路线一分为二。

民粹主义、崇拜农民、回归乡村,一度有很大的政治影响力,激发了一代俄罗斯理想主义年青人自发上山下乡。但如诗如画的俄罗斯乡村社会是幻觉,刚从农奴制下脱身的农村多疑,排外,暴力,读高尔基的《关于俄罗斯农民》就懂了。

俄罗斯农村流传着很多如何打老婆的技术指导:“用斧柄给她来一下,看她还有呼吸没有,要是还有,再来一下。”1860年代废除农奴制,解放了农民人身,但没有把他们织入法织社会的框架。

列宁主义不起源于列宁自己。1869年,Nechaev出版革命对话集:革命者没有情感,没有私务,没有牵挂,没有财产,没有道德,没有名字,一切都服务于惟一的目的:革命。因同志Ivanov拒绝服务命令,Nechaev将其处死。妥斯托耶夫斯基将此事写入小说The Possessed。

俄罗斯民粹主义运动有三个基本主张:要民主要自由;理想化农村和农民;俄罗斯可以村社为样板走出一条独特的现代化道路。有个致命问题:农民不愿革命怎么办?一派认为要通过教育,等待农民产生革命自觉;一派认为要带领农民革命。

1874年夏,数千学生自发下乡,与农民生活在一起,并传播革命思想,农民反应冷淡,多以悲剧和闹剧收场。民粹主义自此日走下风。

1878年,激进革命派刺杀彼得堡总督,被判无罪,此后发生多起刺杀案,高潮是1881年刺杀沙皇亚历山大二世,锁定了革命与反革命的极端化螺旋。

列宁哥哥亚历山大·乌里亚诺夫是土地和自由党激进派成员,计划在亚历山大二世遇刺六周年之际刺杀亚历山大三世,失败,被处死。沙皇最后20年,1.7万人死于革命恐怖活动。革命党经费主要来自抢劫。

列宁的中学校长费多尔·克伦斯基给他的评语是:模范学生,服从权威。他不可能想得到这个模范学生有一天会夺了他儿子的权。他的儿子是克伦斯基,1917年俄罗斯临时政府总理,十月革命的对象。

列宁兄长亚历山大是乌里亚诺夫家这一代的骄傲,1887年,因主谋刺杀亚历山大三世被处极刑。这是列宁转向革命的催化剂。参与了刺杀密谋者还有 Joseph Pilsudski,后来成为波兰统治者,在十月革命后派军队进攻红色苏维埃,并占据乌克兰大部。历史就是这样吊诡。

在读到马克思主义之前,列宁已经读了大量车尔尼雪夫斯基、Tkachev。后来叫作列宁主义的那些东西:严明的革命纪律、雅各宾式独裁倾向、对自由派和民主派的蔑视,来自于俄罗斯革命传统,而不是马克思。

1872年,马克思《资本论》通过了沙皇的出版审查,他以前的所有著作都没能通过。审查者认为,《资本论》太艰涩了,俄罗斯没人会看。就这样,马克思主义来到俄罗斯。马克思主义满足了俄罗斯知识分子对绝对真理的追求,获得了狂热的广泛皈依。从此,农民革命的道路被摒弃,工人革命成为主流。

1903年俄社会民主党第二次大会,列宁与马托夫决裂。列宁认为须加入党组织才能成为党员,马托夫认为只要认同党的纲领可以。23票支持列宁,28 票反对。随后支持马托夫的两个小派别因其他主张被否退出,列宁获得微弱多数,自称多数派(布尔什维克),称对手为少数派(孟什维克)。

1891年俄罗斯大饥荒,50万人死亡。政府最早禁止报道,官方口径是收成差点。没有可靠信息,民间传闻越传越可怕。最后政府不得不承认失败,当年11月宣布开禁,请求社会各界组织援助,这是一个历史性时刻,自此政府再也不能控制公民自组织和社会大讨论。

二、最后的改革机会

斯托雷平

1904年,日俄战争一触即发,俄内务部长Plehve说,干脆打场小胜仗来遏制革命吧。战争的确把许多自由派变成军国狂人。但是,沙俄战败,从此不可收拾。

战争爆发后,保守派内务部长Plehve被刺。沙皇不得已换开明派人物Mirsky接任,其妻在日记中写道,这下不好了,期望如此之高,而能做的太少。上帝保佑老公。沙皇最后20年反复出现一个主题:一波又一波改革愿望在沙皇反对下不能有所为。Mirsky跟沙皇建议把当时的一点基层自治扩展到全俄,沙皇说,还真是,这样就可以更好地研究牲畜了。Mirsky说,代议制机构要做的是对政治发言。沙皇沉默。事遂寝。

这事黄了以后,Mirsky对手下说,没救了,多建点监狱吧。

1905年1月9日,彼得堡15万工人在神父Gapon带领下,抬着沙皇尼古拉的肖像,到冬宫向沙皇请愿。像前人相信沙皇是农民的保护者一样,Gapon神父相信沙皇是工人的保护者。军队开枪,200人被杀。对工人的争夺结束,俄国革命不可逆。

1905年10月17日,全国大罢工期间,562家工厂代表集会,创设圣彼得堡苏维埃,50名委员中,各有七名来自孟什维克、布尔什维克、社会革命党。孟什维克事实上主导了苏维埃,因为他们本来就主张工人大民主,布尔什维克影响力很小,他们对工人自发革命有怀疑。

沙皇终于从打猎归来,维特告诉他国家即将崩溃,要么马上政改,要么立即军管。尼古拉想任命叔叔尼克莱为军事总督,尼克莱掏出左轮,如果沙皇不收回成命就当场自杀。尼克莱是皇室唯一有军事才能的人。沙皇只好颁政改诏。

1905年沙皇政改诏下之后,政治暂时恢复正常,但街头左右翼暴力事件随即出现。社会地位最低的犹太人再次成为替罪羊。保皇右翼指称俄罗斯之乱全因犹太人阴谋,全俄出现数百起迫害犹太人事件,在奥德萨,800名犹太人被杀。

沙皇下政改诏后仅两个月,1905年12月,逮捕彼得堡苏维埃领导人,莫斯科工人起义,被镇压,工人死亡上千。镇压成功使沙皇进一步迷信武力。温和派首辅维特说他失去对沙皇的影响力,极右派Durnovo主导。沙皇政改收场之时,总共2.5万人被杀。

莫斯科工人起义时,高尔基的公寓成为策划中心。事败后高尔基逃亡芬兰。执政的温和派领袖维特付钱给伦敦每日电讯报,散布高尔基是反犹主义人士的谣言。非常讽刺,反犹主义是沙皇执政后期集结反动派的主要动力之一。

1905年革命失败有三个原因:革命力量(工人、革命党、农民、哗变的军队)各行其事,缺乏协调;军队主体仍然忠于沙皇;沙政治改革诏令分化了自由派和革命派。

革命失败,但沙皇失去了全部软实力。一位俄罗斯农民说,前几年对沙皇又有指望又害怕,现在只剩下害怕了。

1906年,51位苏维埃领导人受审,支持者送来的鲜花把法庭变成了花店,法官没有勇气令法警拿走。托洛斯基激情陈词完毕,辩护律师们与他热烈握手,其中一名是Zarudny,1917年的时候成了克伦斯基政府司法部长,以叛国罪逮捕了托洛斯基。又一个革命时代的吊诡。

政治光谱急剧向两端收缩。中间偏左和中间偏右萎缩。地主主导的地方自治机构,过去曾是自由化改革的主力,逐步变成反革命中坚。一度与苏维埃联盟的立宪党,认识到他们是革命的下一个目标。许多左翼知识分子不谈政治,长出肥肉。

一批知名左翼知识分子出书反省革命。有人写道:我们应该停止幻想拯救人民。人民比沙皇的全部枪决令加起来还要可怕。只有沙皇和刺刀才能保护我们。

1905年革命后,列宁革命理论成型:与沙皇斗争,资产阶级不可靠;俄罗斯社会主义革命不必经过资产阶级革命阶段。托洛斯基与列宁相似,虽然他名义上还是孟什维克。他与列宁有别,相信在欧洲社会主义革命没来时,资产阶级如果不支持或不保持中立,俄国革命将会失败,所以对资产阶级要怀柔。

1906年4 月27日,在沙皇尼古拉的坚持下,第一次俄罗斯国家杜马在冬宫而不是议会大厦开幕。沙皇进入大厅时,大臣欢呼,但杜马代表们一语不发。沙皇在仪式中没有看杜马代表一眼,在发表完将以铁血维护君主独裁的讲演后即离去。1917年以前,俄罗斯政治只有一个主题:杜马与沙皇之争。

两个革命政党社会革命党和社会民主党没有参加国家杜马,杜马主要由农民党和代表资产阶级的立宪党人组成。第一个要求是土地改革,征收地主多余土地。在沉默20多天后,沙皇发下两个法案,第一个是建个洗衣店,第二个是在某间大学建图书馆。第一届国家杜马在72天后即被解散。

沙俄最后一相斯托雷平与戈尔巴乔夫相似:都致力于为一个腐朽的专制统治作自由化改革,都在强权既得利益集团与激进民主派之间找一条窄路,都没有看清两者完全不能兼容,都选择自上而下推进改革,也都失败于此。

斯托雷平在农村平乱,曾面对一名刺客解开大衣,要他当众开枪。刺客动摇,投降。他的女儿说他充分掌握了地主对农民的威势。斯托雷平在1907年出任首相后写下遗书。第一句是:我在哪里被杀,就埋在哪里。

斯托雷平说自己两线作战:为对抗革命而战,也为推进改革而战。他认为维持沙皇制的惟一办法,是给农民土地,给农民平等的政治权利,使其成为现体制的支柱。他主张法治,主张保护人们自由权利。

1911年8月,在基辅剧院,沙皇尼古拉面前,斯托雷平遇刺,四日后死亡。刺客Bogrov原为革命党,后被收买成为警方线人。没人说得清他是受左派还是右派指使。斯托雷平两面都树敌太多。

七年后,沙皇尼古拉在被布尔什维克灭族前说,如果斯托雷平活着,自己也许不会走上末路。

20世纪初俄罗斯农村,土地为村社共同所有,农民的自留地在外,数年一换,村社共有地居中。有点井田制,又有点承包制。家庭内部,土地权利也归成员共有。农民无法积累财富,陷于平均的贫困。斯托雷平土改推动农民私有化自留地,并鼓励土地集中,以制造恒产来制造恒心。未成功。

三、战争与革命

拉斯普金

能凝聚俄罗斯的只剩下民族主义。一战前,大斯拉夫主义与大日耳曼主义在东南欧针锋相对。沙皇尼古拉对与叔叔德皇开战很犹豫。战争失败则革命不可阻;不开战则被民族激情扫进墙角。尼古拉决定豪赌。他以为战争不论胜败会在6个月内结束,他不知道一战是现代消耗战的代名词。

Brusilov是沙俄最杰出的将领,发明了以他名字命名的突破德国阵地战法。战争初期任俄军第八军司令对奥作战。他带军打上了卡帕提亚山,由于弹药不继,不能向下攻击到匈牙利平原。革命后他参加红军,而此时在他麾下的邓尼金是白军领袖。他们的故事将在1921年继续。

由于战术过时,对德作战头几个月,俄军中下级军官几乎全部伤亡,替换他们的是20岁出头火线提拔临时训练的士兵,他们一般出身农民。他们是1917年革命军官团的主力。一战为沙俄准备好了掘墓人。

1915年5月,德国发动东线总攻击,俄军溃败。9月,尼古拉摄最高统帅位,以激励军心,适得其反,人人皆知尼古拉昧于军事。大本营迁至彼得堡西一村庄,原意为“坟墓”。朝政执于皇后和拉斯普金。革命到来前的17个月换了四任首相。贵族知亡国在即,疯狂地享受最后奢华。

沙俄战争后勤完全崩溃。民间自发组织,由1905年日俄战争期间民间后援组织领袖Lvov牵头,为前线提供医疗、运输等保障,规模大到如同另一个政府。1917年2月革命后,临时政府只有三个部长不是来自战争期间的后援组织,Lvov是第一任总理。

俄罗斯军队成为革命中坚的几个原因:上级军官普遍无视士兵生命;战争准备和后勤组织是一场灾难,没粮没枪没衣服;皇后是德国人,军队普遍相信宫廷内有德国间谍;拉斯普金弄权毁灭了沙皇的神秘感和权威。

Brusilov等职业高级将领原来以为对德战争及其胜利能防止国内革命。1916年冬,他们终于认识到事实正好相反:只有革命,换掉沙皇政权,才是打赢的前提。战争不独立于政治。

Yusupov大公是同性恋,新娶沙皇侄女,请拉斯普金“治愈”断袖之癖,拉斯普金却引诱他。大公谋除之。1916年12月16日,请其至家中,以氰化钾毒酒鸩之,无事。以枪击之者再,不久苏醒,在庭院中大叫,我要告发你们!另一位密谋者正好进门,给他两枪,搞定。神棍死后两月,二月革命到来。

战争也考验革命党人。德国社民党一直是俄罗斯革命者的指南和样板,但德国社民党支持战争,给俄国革命者沉重一击。托洛斯基说这比宣战本身还可怕。列宁刚听说此事时认为这是德国间谍分裂革命者的阴谋。民族主义给国际主义革命者上了一课。科伦泰正好在德国议会投票表的现场,目睹德国社民党议员着军服投下赞成票,几乎崩溃。

社会革命党和孟什维克都分裂为支持战争的防卫派和反战的国际主义派。只有布尔什维克坚定反战。 列宁认为,工人阶级应当发动内战,才能结束这场帝国主义战争。托洛斯基是孟什维克国际主义派领袖,他逐步认同列宁对战争的判断,1917年7月加入布尔什维克。

布尔什维克领导人中,有些在一战期间流亡海外(托洛斯基、布哈宁),有文化,了解欧洲,国际主义,往往出身孟什维克);一类出身农民,始终在国内(斯大林、捷尔任斯基),残酷斗争无情打击是家常便饭。这是后来“世界革命派”与“社会主义在一国首先胜利派”斗争之源。

农民应征入伍,加上运力首先保障军需,使城市出现粮食短缺。1917年初,彼得堡妇女每周在配给处排队领粮的时间超过40小时。排队人太多,成了消息和谣言的汇总地。二月革命是这样发生的:一群妇女领面包排队排得不耐烦,回工厂去发动工友游行。排队导致革命。

四、人民的革命

克伦斯基

1917年2月23日,彼得堡大游行开始,纯粹出于自发。

2月25日,军队开枪,死伤数百。开枪的部队回到营房后,非常后悔,下层军官与士兵,与游行工人一样,大多刚刚从农村来到城市。他们发誓绝不再向“兄弟姐妹”开枪。次日军官令其出发,被拒。在抗命士兵面前,这名军官因恐惧转身逃跑,跑不过子弹。权威瓦解,暴露纸老虎面目。彼得堡军队全面哗变,保护抗议者,与警察激战。二月革命没有领袖。

二月革命并不简单地是全民的节日。暴力洪流自发地席卷一切特权者,中产阶级的眼镜、白衬衫也被当作特权象征被踩碎,被扯碎。

农民抢劫托尔斯泰庄园。未亡人向克伦斯基求救,打包手稿,熄灭灯火,枯坐客厅,等待命运裁决。农民又来了,天黑,以为已抢光,打下一家土豪去了。托尔斯泰和那一代的知识分子崇拜农民,以其坚韧、承受,包容一切苦难。他没活到亲历这苦难的释放。

1917年1月,列宁在瑞士说,我们这些老人大概看不到革命那一天了。二月革命发生时,社会革命党、孟什维克和布尔什维克的领袖都不在彼得堡,要么流亡海外,要么流放西伯利亚。在彼得堡的中层革命党人直到2月27日革命已经实现时,才出去领导革命:“我们是革命领袖,要赶上革命”。

2月27日下午,各党联合成立彼得堡苏维埃工人临时执行委员会。3000人的彼得堡工人和士兵苏维埃晚间成立。执委会的主要成员来自各社会主义政党。他们是左翼知识分子,宣布代表工人和士兵。

2月28日,国家杜马在左右翼的斗争中犹豫不决。克伦斯基决定自己成立一个非正式的国家杜马恢复秩序临时委员会。同在Tauride宫,苏维埃在左边,杜马临时委员会在右边。前者在街头一呼百应,但没有合法性;后者有合法性,但对街头没有影响力。


Tauride Palace

克伦斯基是惟一在临时政府中任职的苏维埃执委。这本不被允许。他告诉大会,你们信任我吗?如果这还需要证明,我现在就死给你们看!大会于是鼓掌通过。两边任职使他执掌最多权势。他杜马时穿大衣戴领结,以获资产阶级的认同;在苏维埃则脱掉大衣和领结,好更象无产阶级。

为恢复秩序,杜马临时委员会命令士兵回到军营,服从军官指挥。士兵担心秋后算账,士兵占绝对多数的苏维埃大会通过一号令,建立士兵委员会,士兵只服从苏维埃,杜马的命令不得与苏维埃抵触。一号令彻底摧毁了军纪。

苏维埃领导人只希望迫使杜马建立资产阶级政权。有几个原因:领导人认为社会主义革命还没到来,要先经过资产阶级革命;苏维埃掌权可能引发反革命的强烈反击;一旦执政,从此承受街头革命洪流压力的就不是沙俄也不是杜马而是苏维埃。苏维埃与杜马谈判成立新政府,拱手将政权交给了资产阶级。

1917年10月之前,苏维埃至少有四次机会夺权,但每次都放弃,错过了把革命纳入民主化轨道的机会,反而成为布尔什维克夺权的驱除者。

苏维埃支持临时政府的条件:大赦政治犯;言论出版集会自由;废除基于阶级、宗教和民族的限制;召开制宪会议;解散警察;实行直接、普遍、秘密和平等的选举制;参加革命的士兵不得解除武装或送到前线,在不值勤时享有完全公民权。条件没涉及战争和土改,最重大的两个问题。

沙皇尼古拉2月26日的日记:10点做弥撒;早饭时有很多人,包括所有的外国人;给Alix写了信,在Bobrisky路上的小教堂边散了会步;天气不错,有点冷;下午茶后读了点书,跟参议员Tregubov谈到吃晚饭;睡前玩了会儿多米诺骨牌。那天彼得堡军队全面哗变,苏维埃于次日成立。

军队没来护驾。有一支小队赶到冬宫,但米哈依大公担心瓷器受损,命令其返回。执行总司令担心调动前线军队回京镇压,会引发全军哗变,被德军所乘。他和全部前线将令通电尼古拉,沙皇叔父尼科莱跪求,要其逊位。尼古拉问于随从将领,答案一样。孤家寡人,穷途末路,沙皇逊位。

沙皇原传位儿子阿列克塞。儿子13岁,血友病,拉斯普金曾说13岁前能治愈。御医说血友病无药可治,而且尼古拉一旦逊位就会被流放。尼古拉于是传位于兄弟米哈依,因为他不能与儿子分离。沙皇一家数年后被布尔什维克全部枪杀。李斯末路悲黄犬,奈何生此帝王家!

米哈依大公意外得知被传位,问杜马领导人如果自己接位能否保障人身安全,答案是否定的。他于是拒绝。300年沙皇制结束。举国欢腾。没有人想复辟,后来的白军领袖也不敢以此为口号。这等于政治自杀。他们比张勋聪明。

临时政府面对三大问题:在土地问题上,放任农民分抢地主;在民族问题上,认为在国民大会召开前应保持现状,为此不惜在芬兰以武力威胁;在战争问题上,继续对德战争。可以说,沙皇制崩溃后临时政府寄望对外战争来建国,布尔什维克坚决停战,但不惜用内战来建国。布尔什维克赢了。

1917年4月,列宁从瑞士归国。德国乐见革命者返俄,列宁不待俄临时政府与德谈判即单方达成通行协议。布尔什维克是惟一坚定反战的政党,厌战已久的前线迅速布尔什维克化。士兵大多出身农民,布尔什维克主义只意味着4个字:回家,分地。

列宁在返国列车上起草了四月提纲:结束帝国主义战争,立即开展无产阶级革命。这一方案远比国内的布尔什维克方案激进,当时只有科伦泰支持他。反对者中,有斯大林。

资产阶级和中产阶级认为二月革命推翻沙皇,是人民的胜利。处于底层的农民、工人和士兵认为这是底层对于压在其头上的一切阶层的胜利。他们才是“人民”。他们赢了,除了砸碎一切特权的标志,还强烈地想要按其意志彻底重组社会:农民要地,工人要工厂,士兵要和平,所有人都要自治。

布尔什维克是惟一表示会满足这些需求的政治势力。

五、列宁的革命

25万彼得堡俄军是最有权但没有灵魂的力量。它不服从临时政府,表面上服从苏维埃,已是乱兵。它只有一个愿望,不打仗。乱兵无主的时间没有长到军队产生独立政治抱负,所以没有出现军阀。要打仗的临时政府统不住这些乱兵,布尔什维克以反战赢得他们的支持。

7月3日,因抗议彼得堡机枪旅被令开赴前线,工人士兵大游行,要求推翻临时政府,一切权力归苏维埃。

一切权力归苏维埃,这个口号体现布尔什维克的意志,因为苏维埃自己并不愿接管政权,布尔什维克此时的革命路迳是一切权力归苏维埃,而布尔什维克接管苏维埃。

次日,两万Kronsdat水兵武装开进彼得堡,要列宁下令夺取政权。布尔什维克在苏维埃中尚居少数,列宁认为革命时机不成熟,未下决心。水兵抓住苏维埃领导人、社会革命党领袖切尔诺夫,“你这狗日的,快点掌权,都送你手上了!”政治领导人没决心,工人士兵无计划。暴乱无果收场。


Kronstadt堡垒

工人冲进苏维埃领导人会议室,挥枪大喊:我们绝不允许你们与资产阶级政府做交易,掌权吧!别讨论了!“苏维埃主席塞他张纸,你按这张纸上说的做就好了。纸上要求所有人回家,不然是反革命。工人被忽悠走了。革命有力量,无表达,要寻找自己的领袖。这一幕与武昌新军找黎元洪很相似,有不同。

右派称7月暴乱是布尔什维克主使,传播列宁是德国间谍的谣言,出自中校 Yermolenko,自称被德国人俘虏时得知。作者不信此说:德国人是资助布尔什维克,但量不大,而且布尔什维克自行其是,根本不听德国人的。7月5 日,临时政府指控布尔什维克通敌暴乱,通缉列宁及另外11人。

布尔什维克失势。临时政府重组,原临时政府与苏维埃达成的执政条件废止,克伦斯基当政,大幅右转。苏维埃被逐出Tauride宫,迁至市郊。

7月暴乱宣告后革命时期各派别成型:布尔什维克是极左,苏维埃其他党派如社会革命党、孟什维克是左,克伦斯基是中,宪政民主党是中右。7月暴乱后极右将领Kornilov接替Brusilov任总司令,向克伦斯基摊牌,要取消士兵委员会,在全国军管。此举被苏维埃和临时政府联手粉碎,但政治两极分化加剧,中间派已无立足之地。

左中右都意识到必须结束无政府状态,而办法是专政。克伦斯基问原总司令Brusilov,是否支持他当独裁者,将军拒绝。问将军本人是否愿意当独裁者,将军拒绝。

极右将领Kornilov的反革命逆流,推动苏维埃权力向极左转移。标志性事件发生在8月31日,布尔什维克第一次在彼得堡苏维埃占据多数。无产阶级革命的条件全部成熟。只有一个问题,一切权力归苏维埃,通过苏维埃来执政,这个路线还要不要?现在,列宁不要了。

苏维埃9月间召开民主大会,讨论接管政权还是与临时政府合作,达不成决定。各社会主义政党通过苏维埃联合执政建立社会民主政权的最后机会丧失。

10月10日,布尔什维克中央决定起义。21名委员仅12名出席,加米涅夫和季诺维也夫投反对票。加米涅夫主张通过苏维埃执政,是另一条路线的领袖。他反对布尔什维克自行武装起义,为此辞去中央委员职务,并登报谴责。列宁登报斥其为叛徒。人人都知道布尔什维克要动手,但都无所作为或无力作为。

克伦斯基错判形势,宣布调动彼得堡军队到前线,想激起布尔什维克暴乱,以便一网成擒,就像对付Kornilov那样。布尔什维克成立革命军事委员会,让一名左翼社会革命党人作主席,以便工人士兵以其为苏维埃的军事机构。10月23日,布尔什维克已经控制了彼得堡所有军营、交通和通信。10月25日起义,毫无悬念。苏维埃第二次全国大会当天晚上召开,Aurora号向冬宫开炮已过去一小时。当天早上,克伦斯基说要去前线找军队,在街上征用了一辆美国使馆的车,一去不返。

孟什维克左翼领袖马托夫主张成立苏维埃各党派参加的新政府,全票通过。但孟什维克和社会革命党的右翼坚决反对布什维克政变,以退出大会抗议。托洛茨基抓住机会,说退会者反对苏维埃,是反革命,只配扫进历史垃圾堆。马托夫大怒,也退场。布尔什维克彻底控制了苏维埃,十月革命获得了苏维埃的背书。

革命者在冬宫发现了有史以来最大的酒窖,就此成为纪律噩梦。派人民委员看着,人民委员自己每天喝醉;派士兵把守,士兵盗卖;把酒倒街上,人们在路沟里喝;运到斯莫尔尼宫,运到瑞典;什么办法都使过,什么办法都没用。要等新年到来,酒喝光,革命才从一场大醉中醒来。

六、停战,分地,清洗

契卡首任主席团,右二为捷尔任斯基。

10月27日,十月革命的第三天,革命军事委员会禁止反对派报纸出版。

 

社会革命党右翼和孟什维克认为布尔什维克政权撑不过一个月。布尔什维克当时所恃不过彼得堡乱兵。但布尔什维克随即把反对者的椅子全部抽掉:宣布没收地主土地归公,工厂归公,立即议和。全国出现抢地、没收富人资产的狂潮,工人、士兵自然为革命前驱。文革在1918年就发生过了。

 

12月,革命军事委员会取消,契卡代之。契卡内部训令:审讯时不用问别的,问名字,问受过什么教育,问有没有财产,就知道是否专政对象。还有更浅显的:如果双手白嫩,就是专政对象。司法人民委员是左翼社会革命党人,对列宁说,叫什么司法部?不如叫消灭部!列宁两眼放光,说得好!不过能干不能说。


契卡徽章

新政权成立人民法庭,后来更仿雅各宾派成立革命审判廷,以工人、士兵为审判者,不通法律没关系,凭革命良心(revolutionary conscience)足以断案。

1918年1月19日,社会福利人民委员科伦泰强行接管东正教圣地Alexander Nevsky教堂作荣军院,枪杀神职人员。列宁次日发布公告,没收一切教产。列宁以旧体制每一根支柱为敌,与旧体制愈决裂,来自旧体制底层的支持愈牢固。

 

人民热爱红色恐怖。一位新生女婴被父母命名为Terrora。

 

尽管有契卡专政工具为后盾,极少数人之所以能够发动绝大多数人打倒少数人,是因为顺应了底层要掀翻一切在它之上阶层的恐怖力量。俄罗斯300年君主专制而不是列宁制造了这种力量,列宁只是放它出笼。

 

1917年11月,原订制宪的最高权力机构国民大会终于选举,太晚了。布尔什维克获24%选票,但社会革命党获38%。列宁认为,如果国民大会不能体现布尔什维克意志,那么人民不需要它。1月大会召开,列宁要求土地、银行归公的决议被否,国民大会即被解散。两天后苏维埃原样通过,它是未来苏俄第一部宪法。

 

布尔什维克对参战各国发出停战邀请。他们原相信帝国主义战争会被各国工人阶级起义所代替,俄国只是第一个。没有实现。对德 Brest-Litovsk条约谈判,列宁要求接受德国条件。布哈宁反对,要打革命战争;托洛斯基是不战不和,即宣布不打仗,但不接受德国的和平条件。

 

对德和约三派中,布哈林占多数,托洛斯基其次,列宁最少数,只得与托结盟。托洛斯基对德摊牌。德国人惊呆:从来没有一方退出战争却不接受战胜者条件的事情。德军进攻,三天之内推进150英里,相当于过去三年的总和。布尔什维克胆寒,列宁亲自向柏林发电报,接受一切条件。

 

为免在Brest- Litovsk耻辱和约上签字,托洛斯基辞去外交人民委员,让一位沙皇时代的外交官接任签字。俄罗斯失去了乌克兰、波兰、芬兰和波罗的海沿岸,失去了 1/3的人口和耕地、54%的工业和89%的煤。直到1939年与纳粹德国瓜分波兰,才大体恢复原状。再往后,1991年,在经历繁盛与崩溃后,俄罗斯的欧洲边界才又回归后Brest-Litovsk条约状况。未来还变不变?

 

帝国主义国家无产阶级大起义久等没来,世界革命论息鼓,列宁创造社会主义在一国首先胜利论。革命理想主义还在,但现实主义更迫切。列宁主义建国开始。第一步是首都迁至莫斯科。

 

内战来了。

内战建国

红军缔造者托洛斯基

白军主要有三支。第一支是南部顿河流域由Kornilov和邓尼金率领的右翼军队,与右翼哥萨克合作;第二支在伏尔加河流域及西伯利亚东部,国民大会中间派议员与适在境内未归国的捷克军队合作,败后与高尔察克的第三支军队合流。白军在1919年夏季向莫斯科大进军,但到1920年春便告失败。

白军失败并不是因为布尔什维克强大,而是因为只想回到革命前,提不出政治纲领,重大政治问题如土地和战争,都要等战争结束后再决定,但输就输在先军事后政治,布尔什维克赢在有革命政治纲领:土地给农民。俄罗斯腹地战区农民的向背决定了战争结果。

1918年夏,与布尔什维克同路半年之后,左派社会革命党人起义。此前左派社会革命党退出政府,但未退出契卡,在20人委员会中占7席,完全掌握契卡武装。莫斯科城中无兵,他们可以拿下克里姆林宫,却前往苏维埃发表演说,被卫兵一网打尽。革命不是请客吃饭,也不是辩论。

同期,沙皇在流放地叶卡捷琳堡被杀。此前列宁准备将其带到莫斯科公审但改变了主意。白军攻城,当地布尔什维克在地下室枪杀沙皇一家11人,跟传说不同,除了宠物犬没有生还者。虽然军中多有君主制拥护者,白军领袖并不想用沙皇作旗号,但列宁不知道。

布尔什维克以内战为建国奠基。红军最多时达到500万人。农民和工人在内战中扫盲,赤化,经受考验,牺牲,成为共产主义铁血新人、新政权的基石。一切为了战争的中央集权体制,也启动了从太上到最下彻底重组俄罗斯社会的进程。沙皇时代,俄罗斯农村帝力于我何有,但被布尔什维克以铁腕导入专政体系。以红军命令体制投射社会,创建现代专政体制,农民国家脱胎换骨,始于托洛斯基,最终由其死敌斯大林完成。

沙俄名将Brusilov心向君主制,但拒绝加入白军,不管好坏,俄罗斯人民已经选择了红色,他只能顺不能逆。Brusilov一度被新政权软禁,独子为求父亲自由加入红军,在顿河流域被邓尼金军队所俘。邓尼金曾为Brusilov部将,不满其温和派立场,将其子处死。1920年5月,新独立的波兰攻下基辅,Brusilov加入红军,此后,在爱国的旗帜下,数万名原沙俄军官加入红军,帮助摧毁他们原来所属的那个阶层。“原来爱国主义这么管用!”托洛斯基说。

托洛斯基告诉 Brusilov,以其名义呼吁白军军官停止抵抗,保证人身安全,并组建一支军队,对波兰作战。后来告知计划取消。事实是,红军飞机对克里米亚半岛上的白军残军散发传单,以Brusilov名义许诺大赦。数百名军官选择留下而不是撤退,日后全部被枪毙。Brusilov不应感到意外。他在加入红军时提条件,释放契卡在押军官。托洛斯基说,捷尔任斯基连我都可以抓!


Brusilov

“如果不是信仰禁止,自杀该多么幸福。”9个月后,Brusilov病死。

托洛斯基是红军创造者、内战获胜的首功。但布尔什维克从红军创建就分裂:托洛斯基大量招募沙俄军官加入红军——工人和农民出身的士兵搞大民主,战前投票决定战术,不可能打赢。许多新兴红军将领反对,包括日后的红军元帅伏罗希洛夫,并得到了斯大林支持,被称为军事反对派。两派之争在列宁调和下暂时妥协:旧军官要利用,也要政委来监控其忠诚。这奠定了日后所有红色军队的雏形,也是托洛斯基和斯大林不死不休斗争的第一章,30年代斯大林对红军的大清洗,也在此埋下伏笔。

中央集权加计划经济,迅速造就庞大官僚体系。几千人负责管理油料分配,但根本没有油料可供分配。全俄90%的纸张消费都在政府。1921年,官僚达到240万人,是革命前四倍有多,是政权所代表的工人阶级人数的两倍。这不是无产阶级专政,而是红色官僚专政。

八、第二代

对于工人和农民来说,战时共产主义撕毁了大革命的契约。它直接产生于粮食管制。布尔什维克政权宣布农民余粮都归国家所有,取缔粮食市场,组织粮食队下乡强行收粮。在城市,工厂收归国有,控制权从工人手中收到红色官僚手中。这既是因为布尔什维克眼中革命需要使然,也完全符合其中央集权的气质。

虽然在红色剥夺与白色剥夺间倾向前者,但当红色征粮队征收额超出收成时,1920年夏秋,俄罗斯腹地农民造反。左派社会革命党人成为造反领袖。他们想回到1917-1918年间的农民有地而自治状态:“要苏维埃,不要布尔什维克!” 列宁说这是新政权最大威胁。

到1921年夏,俄罗斯农村的布尔什维克力量已被农民造反一扫而光。1921年2月,莫斯科工人举行反布尔什维克大罢工。列宁问工人是不是宁愿要白军统治,他以为这样能吓住工人。工人说,黑的、白的,鬼也行,就是不要你!

1917年向冬宫开炮的Aurora号,这次加入抗议队伍。最大挑战来自Kronstadt水兵。他们曾是布尔什维克最可信赖的武力,在十月革命和解散国民大会时发挥了关键作用。现在他们决定反抗:“从沙皇那里争来的自由,被布尔什维克夺走了!”他们要求恢复多党制的苏维埃。被镇压。

镇压Kronstadt水兵同时,布尔什维克召开大会,通过决议禁止党内派别,此举原为打击科伦泰的工人反对派,但影响深远。为此成立中央书记处,以斯大林为总书记,这是斯大林崛起的关键一步。在党对国家的绝对领导确立后,确立了中央对全党自上而下的绝对控制。

通过新经济政策,列宁向农民和工人作出妥协,结束了战时共产主义政策。这使后人无休止地讨论:战时共产主义政策与新经济政策,哪一个是列宁的本意?哪一个是权宜之计?

1921年,俄罗斯大饥荒。高尔基向列宁申请成立民间救援总会,由此获得胡佛的美国援助机构ARA资助。这是苏俄第一个也是最后一个NGO。最高峰时,ARA每天给1000万人散粮。ARA一来,列宁就解散民间救援总会,除高尔基外的所有人被指控为外国间谍。1921年冬,列宁最喜欢的作家、俄国革命的良心,高尔基离开苏俄。


高尔基

1921年,列宁战胜了党内反对派、工人、农民和士兵叛乱,但身体战胜了他。健康状况陷于崩溃。颈部和胳膊有两粒子弹未取出。次年中风,左侧身体瘫痪。他一度想自杀,照顾他的妹妹不忍,找到斯大林,因为他心硬如铁。斯大林拒绝,政治局否决。列宁求死不得。谁来接班?

托洛斯基是最能干的中央委员,列宁说。他接不了班。孟什维克出身、贵族作派、独断性格,使他在党内树敌太多。列宁年代党内的两个反对派:军事反对派和工人反对派,都是托洛斯基的反对派。

所有人都低估了斯大林,温和中庸勤奋忠诚。他们还没懂得权力的性格与个人的性格是两回事。斯大林掌握组织部和书记处,党羽遍布党务系统。没有巨人列宁的年代,选票最重要。加米涅夫和季诺维也夫与他组成三驾马车,以对抗托洛斯基。加米涅夫想接班,以为托洛斯基是最大竞争对手;季诺维也夫与托洛斯基有仇。他们以为可以利用斯大林,不知道螳螂捕蝉黄雀在后,一场审判在十年后等待着他们。

列宁末年想去掉斯大林,但无力回天。他留下了三个遗嘱:民族问题、党内民主、接班人,都直接针对斯大林,明确地说斯大林太过刚愎自用,要由更宽容的同志担任领袖。列宁的医生和秘书已被斯大林控制。遗嘱在送到中央委员会之前斯大林已知道内容。斯大林没有阻止遗嘱在 12大上宣读,但把大会召开时间推迟了一个月。大会召开时斯大林派已占据多数,毫发无伤,反而巩固了实力。托洛斯基数月后挑战三驾马车,被逐出政治局,政治生命结束,1927年再度流亡海外。

列宁在轮椅上挣扎一年多,“怎么他妈的还不死!”斯大林说;1924年初,列宁去世,遗愿是骨灰撒在土里。斯大林不干。尸体保存起来供人参观,大脑放到实验室供人研究。死列宁比活列宁对斯大林更有用。

斯大林的时代开始了。以100万布尔什维克、300 万官僚、500万红军为工具,一场空前的社会实验降临在俄罗斯。

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HP laptop slowdown with AC adapter

I had been experienced for a long long time that my HP probook laptop keep running terribly slow from time to time, that I can’t event open the menu of Firefox, any operation will eat most CPU time and idle process CPU time always lower than 50% . Also there are some serious symptoms appear in windows event log:

Event ID 37

The speed of processor 1 in group 0 is being limited by system firmware. The processor has been in this reduced performance state for 53 seconds since the last report.

Event ID 46

Processor 3 in group 0 exposes the following:

2 idle state(s)
14 performance state(s)
8 throttle state(s)

Those  messages kept appearing, Google can’t seek much useful info, that the most possible situation is hardware damaged. I agree with that but no one could tell exactly which part is malfunctioned. I changed a CPU, with same type, I3 390M, no use. I reinstall OS but the moment new OS took breaths, the old odd problems came back like a ghost. I guest that maybe it is not the CPU maybe BIOS, but HP BIOS leave only poor options to make some  changes.  Many suggestions are to adjust power option, prevent CPU from running into  limit freq mode, but that also not work for me, either.

With windows system internal explorer, disable any services that eat CPU, I found that it looks like the DPC (delay procedure call) and interrupt took about 0.5%-5% CPU time, a little more time than it should be. I think that is too much, so I ran low level test program LatencyMon. It shows that lots of latency from some drivers and interrupt. OK, that is the cause of system slowdown, but what should I do? I still don’t know what is damaged or which driver is improperly installed, all from published by Microsoft.

Just when I considering throw this garbage into dustbin, here comes the resume. I always using this laptop with AC adapter, but one day,  when I unplugged the adapter, I suddenly found that laptop became sharp again, every come back to mornal, everything felt so smooth, now I know what the F is going on.

Here is output form LatencyMon

using battery:
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
CPU SPEED
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Reported CPU speed:                                   2666.0 MHz
Measured CPU speed:                                   1001.0 MHz (approx.)
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
MEASURED INTERRUPT TO USER PROCESS LATENCIES
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Highest measured interrupt to process latency (µs):   27257.342909
Average measured interrupt to process latency (µs):   9.683204
Highest measured interrupt to DPC latency (µs):       205.439027
Average measured interrupt to DPC latency (µs):       1.259948
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
REPORTED ISRs
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Interrupt service routines are routines installed by the OS and device drivers that execute in response to a hardware interrupt signal.

Highest ISR routine execution time (µs):              131.155289
Driver with highest ISR routine execution time:       ataport.SYS – ATAPI Driver Extension, Microsoft Corporation

Highest reported total ISR routine time (%):          0.049321
Driver with highest ISR total time:                   hal.dll – Hardware Abstraction Layer DLL, Microsoft Corporation

Total time spent in ISRs (%)                          0.072558

ISR count (execution time <250 µs):                   87910
ISR count (execution time 250-500 µs):                0
ISR count (execution time 500-999 µs):                0
ISR count (execution time 1000-1999 µs):              0
ISR count (execution time 2000-3999 µs):              0
ISR count (execution time >=4000 µs):                 0

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
REPORTED DPCs
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Highest DPC routine execution time (µs):              267.954614
Driver with highest DPC routine execution time:       ACPI.sys – ACPI Driver for NT, Microsoft Corporation

Highest reported total DPC routine time (%):          0.169968
Driver with highest DPC total execution time:         rspLLL64.sys – Resplendence Latency Monitoring and Auxiliary Kernel Library, Resplendence Software Projects Sp.

Total time spent in DPCs (%)                          0.387157

DPC count (execution time <250 µs):                   467966
DPC count (execution time 250-500 µs):                0
DPC count (execution time 500-999 µs):                4
DPC count (execution time 1000-1999 µs):              0
DPC count (execution time 2000-3999 µs):              0
DPC count (execution time >=4000 µs):                 0

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
REPORTED HARD PAGEFAULTS
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Hard pagefaults are events that get triggered by making use of virtual memory that is not resident in RAM but backed by a memory mapped file on disk. The process of resolving the hard pagefault requires reading in the memory from disk while the process is interrupted and blocked from execution.

NOTE: some processes were hit by hard pagefaults. If these were programs producing audio, they are likely to interrupt the audio stream resulting in dropouts, clicks and pops. Check the Processes tab to see which programs were hit.

Process with highest pagefault count:                 none

Total number of hard pagefaults                       6
Hard pagefault count of hardest hit process:          3
Highest hard pagefault resolution time (µs):          19152.621155
Total time spent in hard pagefaults (%):              0.009589
Number of processes hit:                              0
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
PER CPU DATA
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
CPU 0 Interrupt cycle time (s):                       3.022050
CPU 0 ISR highest execution time (µs):                81.521005
CPU 0 ISR total execution time (s):                   0.184461
CPU 0 ISR count:                                      85072
CPU 0 DPC highest execution time (µs):                264.338710
CPU 0 DPC total execution time (s):                   0.931696
CPU 0 DPC count:                                      441177
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
CPU 1 Interrupt cycle time (s):                       1.202737
CPU 1 ISR highest execution time (µs):                102.689797
CPU 1 ISR total execution time (s):                   0.018182
CPU 1 ISR count:                                      884
CPU 1 DPC highest execution time (µs):                244.097524
CPU 1 DPC total execution time (s):                   0.089548
CPU 1 DPC count:                                      5911
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
CPU 2 Interrupt cycle time (s):                       0.861943
CPU 2 ISR highest execution time (µs):                131.155289
CPU 2 ISR total execution time (s):                   0.020119
CPU 2 ISR count:                                      982
CPU 2 DPC highest execution time (µs):                267.954614
CPU 2 DPC total execution time (s):                   0.140828
CPU 2 DPC count:                                      10137
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
CPU 3 Interrupt cycle time (s):                       5.537322
CPU 3 ISR highest execution time (µs):                102.685671
CPU 3 ISR total execution time (s):                   0.021638
CPU 3 ISR count:                                      972
CPU 3 DPC highest execution time (µs):                264.816204
CPU 3 DPC total execution time (s):                   0.142011
CPU 3 DPC count:                                      10745
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________

latencymon_battery

Using AC adapter:

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
CPU SPEED
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Reported CPU speed:                                   2666.0 MHz
Measured CPU speed:                                   1001.0 MHz (approx.)
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
MEASURED INTERRUPT TO USER PROCESS LATENCIES
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Highest measured interrupt to process latency (µs):   36940.241051
Average measured interrupt to process latency (µs):   11.430942

Highest measured interrupt to DPC latency (µs):       4838.761084
Average measured interrupt to DPC latency (µs):       1.285947
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
REPORTED ISRs
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Highest ISR routine execution time (µs):              1853.656414
Driver with highest ISR routine execution time:       USBPORT.SYS – USB 1.1 & 2.0 Port Driver, Microsoft Corporation

Highest reported total ISR routine time (%):          0.050281
Driver with highest ISR total time:                   hal.dll – Hardware Abstraction Layer DLL, Microsoft Corporation

Total time spent in ISRs (%)                          0.087438

ISR count (execution time <250 µs):                   601848
ISR count (execution time 250-500 µs):                0
ISR count (execution time 500-999 µs):                1
ISR count (execution time 1000-1999 µs):              5
ISR count (execution time 2000-3999 µs):              0
ISR count (execution time >=4000 µs):                 0
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
REPORTED DPCs
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Highest DPC routine execution time (µs):              10688.889722
Driver with highest DPC routine execution time:       ACPI.sys – ACPI Driver for NT, Microsoft Corporation

Highest reported total DPC routine time (%):          0.162464
Driver with highest DPC total execution time:         rspLLL64.sys – Resplendence Latency Monitoring and Auxiliary Kernel Library, Resplendence Software Projects Sp.

Total time spent in DPCs (%)                          0.474645

DPC count (execution time <250 µs):                   3183218
DPC count (execution time 250-500 µs):                0
DPC count (execution time 500-999 µs):                218
DPC count (execution time 1000-1999 µs):              46
DPC count (execution time 2000-3999 µs):              12
DPC count (execution time >=4000 µs):                 0
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
REPORTED HARD PAGEFAULTS
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Hard pagefaults are events that get triggered by making use of virtual memory that is not resident in RAM but backed by a memory mapped file on disk. The process of resolving the hard pagefault requires reading in the memory from disk while the process is interrupted and blocked from execution.

NOTE: some processes were hit by hard pagefaults. If these were programs producing audio, they are likely to interrupt the audio stream resulting in dropouts, clicks and pops. Check the Processes tab to see which programs were hit.

Process with highest pagefault count:                 firefox.exe

Total number of hard pagefaults                       82
Hard pagefault count of hardest hit process:          42
Highest hard pagefault resolution time (µs):          54719.405851
Total time spent in hard pagefaults (%):              0.019669
Number of processes hit:                              9
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
PER CPU DATA
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
CPU 0 Interrupt cycle time (s):                       22.060069
CPU 0 ISR highest execution time (µs):                1848.877719
CPU 0 ISR total execution time (s):                   1.325415
CPU 0 ISR count:                                      571424
CPU 0 DPC highest execution time (µs):                4321.660915
CPU 0 DPC total execution time (s):                   6.839788
CPU 0 DPC count:                                      2954846
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
CPU 1 Interrupt cycle time (s):                       8.162236
CPU 1 ISR highest execution time (µs):                1853.656414
CPU 1 ISR total execution time (s):                   0.202151
CPU 1 ISR count:                                      10097
CPU 1 DPC highest execution time (µs):                6495.461365
CPU 1 DPC total execution time (s):                   1.045839
CPU 1 DPC count:                                      58885
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
CPU 2 Interrupt cycle time (s):                       6.892908
CPU 2 ISR highest execution time (µs):                1394.983496
CPU 2 ISR total execution time (s):                   0.214699
CPU 2 ISR count:                                      10241
CPU 2 DPC highest execution time (µs):                6415.545386
CPU 2 DPC total execution time (s):                   1.518077
CPU 2 DPC count:                                      89777
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
CPU 3 Interrupt cycle time (s):                       30.317668
CPU 3 ISR highest execution time (µs):                199.181170
CPU 3 ISR total execution time (s):                   0.222712
CPU 3 ISR count:                                      10092
CPU 3 DPC highest execution time (µs):                10688.889722
CPU 3 DPC total execution time (s):                   1.262933
CPU 3 DPC count:                                      79992
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________

latencymon

It is lucky for just replace a cheap 10$ AC adapter rather than a new laptop, to fix this unbearable problem. The malfunctioned adapter worked “fine”,  no much heat, voltage looks good, but both Microsoft and HP failed to catch the point although it announces it is broken times and times.

I am so disappoint for HP, and I would never buy any HP product again, that is the last what I want to say.

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